Wisconsin Coastal GIS Applications Project

The Status of Digital Parcel Mapping in Wisconsin's Lake Michigan Coastal Counties


Table of Contents

Chapter 1 -- Introduction
Chapter 2 -- Summary of Digital Parcel Mapping on the Lake Michigan Coast
Chapter 3 -- Status of Digital Parcel Mapping in Lake Michigan Coastal Counties
Chapter 4 -- References
Appendix A -- Lake Michigan Coastal County GIS Data Survey Form


Author

David A. Hart
University of Wisconsin Sea Grant Institute
and
Land Information and Computer Graphics Facility, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Principal Investigators

Stephen J. Ventura
Bernard J. Niemann, Jr.
Land Information and Computer Graphics Facility, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Allen H. Miller
University of Wisconsin Sea Grant Institute
and
Land Information and Computer Graphics Facility, University of Wisconsin-Madison

This research was conducted as part of an agreement between the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Detroit District under the supervision of David Barilovich.


Chapter 1. Introduction

Fueled by the Wisconsin Land Information Program (WLIP), local governments in Wisconsin are rapidly modernizing their land records (Tulloch and Niemann 1996). A central focus of this modernization effort is the creation of digital parcel mapping. The parcel is the fundamental unit for graphically understanding information about rights and interests in land. Governments, especially at the local level, use parcel mapping to plan and manage a wide variety of services, including property assessment, public works, land use planning, emergency services, and management of title records (Epstein and Moyer 1993). Digital parcel mapping may be created using a variety of methods. Parcels may be entered into a digital format directly from survey plats and title records using coordinate geometry or they can be converted from an existing paper or mylar map to a digital format using computer-aided drafting (CAD) and/or geographic information system (GIS) software.

As is occurring across the state, counties along the Lake Michigan coast in Wisconsin (see Figure 1) are investing significant resources in digital parcel mapping. According to surveys of GIS/LIS expenditures from 1992 to 1995, Lake Michigan coastal counties in Wisconsin spent over $6.2 million on the parcel foundational element of the WLIP. Since 1996, comprehensive surveys of the status of county efforts associated with the WLIP have not been undertaken. Other surveys of the GIS/LIS activities of local government in Wisconsin have been either very general or targeted at very specific information. As a result, detailed and current information about the status of digital parcel mapping in Wisconsin has not been available.

In order to better understand the status of digital geospatial data development at the local government level along the Lake Michigan coast of Wisconsin, detailed surveys were conducted in the 11 counties that border Lake Michigan. These surveys were conducted in person in county offices from January 29 to March 17, 1998. The survey included a total of 70 questions about the completeness, compilation method, format, and documentation of digital mapping of parcels, planimetric features, orthophotography, elevations, zoning, soils, wetlands, land use, natural resources, and infrastructure. The survey questions are included as Appendix A. Answers to the survey questions for each county are listed in Appendix A of the report titled Development of a Horizontally and Vertically Integrated Geographic Information System for the Lake Michigan Coast in Wisconsin Using Local Government Spatial Data available from the Land Information and Computer Graphics Facility at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

This report analyzes the results of the survey related to digital parcel mapping. The first section is a summary of the status of digital parcel mapping in Lake Michigan coastal counties. This is followed by a review of digital parcel mapping in each Lake Michigan coastal county. In some cases, there has been communication with local government officials in the Lake Michigan coastal counties to keep track of progress in digital parcel mapping that has occurred since the surveys.



Chapter 2. Summary of Digital Parcel Mapping on the Lake Michigan Coast

This chapter describes the general results from coastal GIS data survey as related to the status of digital parcel mapping. Generally speaking, digital parcel mapping along the Lake Michigan coast in Wisconsin is fairly well advanced (approximately 74% complete), but comes in a wide variety of formats. Pockets of areas are not complete and many areas that are complete have been compiled in a manner to support more efficient drafting of parcel maps rather than spatial analysis of land use, property assessment, and land ownership patterns. Editing of digital parcel mapping from a CAD format to a clean, topologically structured format can potentially take significant staff time or cost much in consulting services. The following aspects of digital parcel mapping on the Lake Michigan coast of Wisconsin are discussed in this chapter: completeness; the extent to which the county provides parcel mapping for cities and villages; the coordinate system used for the computerized land information system in the county; compilation methods, software format; topology; parcel indentification numbers; whether a linkage to the tax roll database is possible; whether metadata (documentation) about parcel mapping exists, and whether any data dissemination policies exist for digital data in the county.

Completeness. Digital parcel mapping is complete in four of the 11 Lake Michigan coastal counties: Door, Kenosha, Manitowoc, and Sheboygan. In each of these counties, however, incremental improvements are being made in the accuracy of digital parcel mapping. Digital parcel is under active development in the remainder of coastal counties, ranging from 12 to 90 percent complete. The percent completion of digital parcel mapping in each county is shown in Table 1. A listing of the number of land parcels in each county as maintained by the Wisconsin Department of Revenue in 1997 is also listed in Table 1 and is provided for general reference purposes. The DOR land parcel count may not accurately reflect the number of parcels to be mapped in a digital format in the county. A map depicting completion of digital parcel mapping by coastal towns, villages, and cities is shown in Figure 2.

Table 1. Digital Parcel Mapping Complete in Lake Michigan Coastal Counties

  1997 DOR Percent of Digital
  Land Parcel Count Parcel Mapping
County (Preliminary) Complete in County
Brown 86,909 55%
Door 37,398 100%
Kenosha 58,291 100%
Kewaunee 18,682 52%
Manitowoc 51,590 100%
Marinette 55,171 12%
Milwaukee 259,305 90%
Oconto 42,267 10%
Ozaukee 33,115 60%
Racine 73,395 66%
Sheboygan 53,846 100%

Note: Reflects digital parcel mapping complete in entire county as of Fall 1998.



County Provision of Parcel Mapping for Cities and Villages. Most coastal counties provide parcel mapping for cities and villages within their boundaries (see Table 2). The exceptions include Manitowoc County, the City of Milwaukee in Milwaukee County, and the City of Sheboygan in Sheboygan County.

Table 2. County Provision of Parcel Mapping for Cities and Villages

  Does County Provide
  Parcel Mapping for
County Cities and Villages?
Brown Yes
Door Yes
Kenosha Yes
Kewaunee Yes
Manitowoc No
Marinette Yes
Milwaukee Yes1
Oconto Yes
Ozaukee Yes
Racine Yes
Sheboygan Yes2

1Except for the City of Milwaukee.
2Except for the City of Sheboygan.


Coordinate System. Lake Michigan coastal counties use either Wisconsin State Plane Coordinates or County Coordinates for their land information systems. The four counties in southeast Wisconsin use Wisconsin State Plane Coordinates, South Zone NAD27. This is the coordinate system supported by the Southeastern Wisconsin Regional Planning Commission. Door and Kewaunee Counties use Wisconsin State Plane Coordinates, Central Zone NAD83. The remainder of coastal counties use County Coordinates. Table 3 indicated the specific coordinate system and datum used in each coastal county.

Table 3. Coordinate System Used for County Land Information System

County Coordinate System Datum
Brown Brown County Coordinates NAD83(91)
Door State Plane Coordinates - Central Zone NAD83(91)
Kenosha State Plane Coordinates - South Zone NAD27
Kewaunee State Plane Coordinates - Central Zone NAD83(91)
Manitowoc Manitowoc County Coordinates1,2,3 NAD83(91)
Marinette Marinette County Coordinates NAD83(91)
Milwaukee State Plane Coordinates - South Zone4 NAD27
Oconto Oconto County Coordinates NAD83(91)
Ozaukee State Plane Coordinates - South Zone NAD27
Racine State Plane Coordinates - South Zone NAD27
Sheboygan Sheboygan County Coordinates1,5 NAD83(91)

1Kewaunee, Manitowoc, and Sheboyban Counties share the same parameters for their county coordinate systems.
2Digital parcel mapping for the City of Manitowoc is in State Plane Coordinates - South Zone, NAD83(91)
3Digital parcel mapping for the City of Two Rivers is in Manitowoc County Coordinates, NAD83(91)
4Digital parcel mapping for the City of Milwaukee is in State Plane Coordinates - South Zone, NAD27
5Digital parcel mapping for the City of Sheboygan is in State Plane Coordinates - South Zone, NAD83


Compilation Methods. A variety of digital parcel mapping compilation methods are used in the Lake Michigan coastal counties. These are depicted in Table 4. In several instances, counties use multiple methods that have evolved over time. Some counties complete digital parcel mapping in-house, while others have contracted out the work. Brown County is a good example of the former, while Kewaunee County is an example of the latter. The most prevalent compilation method is use of coordinate geometry which is then tied to the geodetic reference framework. Several counties digitize existing parcel maps and, in the case of Manitowoc County, digital parcel maps were described as "drawn" and are not tied to a geodetic reference system.

Table 4. Compilation Methods for Digital Parcel Mapping

    Is Digital Parcel Mapping Tied
  Digital Parcel Mapping to the Geodetic Reference Framework
County Compilation Method Used in the County?
Brown COGO Yes
Door Variety Yes
Kenosha Digitiged Yes
Kewaunee COGO Yes
Manitowoc "Drawn" No ("Floating")
Marinette COGO Yes
Milwaukee COGO and Digitized Yes
Oconto Digitized No (Tied to PLSS-DNR Landnet)
Ozaukee COGO Yes
Racine COGO Yes
Sheboygan COGO and Digitized Yes


Software Format. Again, a variety of software formats exist for digital parcel mapping. Most coastal counties (6 of 11) use AutoCAD software for parcel mapping. Other choices include Genamap, Arc/Info, ArcCAD, and ArcView shapefiles. Four counties (Door, Milwaukee, Kenosha, and Sheboygan) support at least two alternatives for the software format of digital parcel mapping. Specific software formats for digital parcel mapping are shown in Table 5.

Table 5. Software Format for Digital Parcel Mapping

County Software Format for Parcels
Brown AutoCAD
Door AutoCAD/ArcCAD
Kenosha Genamap1
Kewaunee AutoCAD
Manitowoc AutoCAD
Marinette AutoCAD
Milwaukee Genamap/DXF2
Oconto Arc/Info
Ozaukee AutoCAD
Racine Genamap
Sheboygan Arc/Info & Shapefiles

1Kenosha County also provides output in Intergraph .DGN, AutoCAD .DXF, and ArcView Shapefiles.
2Intergraph in City of Milwaukee.


Parcel Data Structure. This category includes whether digital parcels are topologically structured, coded with unique parcel identification numbers, and whether a linkage can be made between digital parcels and tax roll data to support thematic mapping of ownership and assessment information (see Table 6). There are four typical cases of topological structuring of digital parcels. The first class includes counties that maintain parcels with topology. An example of this class is Sheboygan County. The second class includes counties where topology is constructed on an as-needed basis to support specific GIS applications. Brown County fits this category. The third category includes counties that have edited parcels in a CAD environment to make sure lines are snapped and broken at intersections, but topology is not developed. Ozaukee County in an example of this category. Finally, the fourth class includes counties where parcels have gaps, dangles, and slivers. Creation of topology in such a case would be difficult. Manitowoc County is an example of this category.

All coastal counties code digital parcels with unique parcel identification numbers. In some cases these consist of text labels in an AutoCAD file (Marinette, Ozaukee, and Manitowoc Counties), while in other cases parcel Ids are database attributes of a parcel GIS data file (Sheboygan and Oconto Counties). A linkage can be made between digital parcel mapping and the tax roll database in 9 of 11 coastal counties. In some cases, the linkage procedure is well established, while in others it has only recently been worked out. More specific information about parcel data structure for each specific county is provided in Chapter 3.

Table 6. Parcel Data Structure

  Do Digital Parcels Are Digital Parcels Can a Linkage be Made
  have Coded with Between Parcels and
County Topology? Parcel IDs? Tax Roll Data?
Brown Yes1 Yes1 Yes
Door Yes Yes Yes
Kenosha Yes Yes Yes
Kewaunee Yes Yes Yes1
Manitowoc No Yes No
Marinette No1 Yes No
Milwaukee Yes1 Yes Yes1
Oconto Yes Yes Yes1
Ozaukee Yes1 Yes1 Yes1
Racine Yes Yes Yes
Sheboygan Yes Yes Yes

1See individual county descriptions for more detail.


Metadata for Digital Parcel Mapping. Most of the coastal counties document the methods used for digital parcel mapping in one manner or another, although only Brown County has developed metadata that follows the Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata. Other methods used to document digital parcel mapping include placing notes on the maps, the use of contract specifications for parcel mapping, and development of parcel mapping guidebooks. Table 7 specifies the techniques used for documenting digital parcel mapping in each coastal county.

Table 7. Metadata for Digital Parcel Mapping

County Metadata for Digital Parcel Mapping
Brown FGDC
Door Specifications, Methods
Kenosha No
Kewaunee No
Manitowoc No
Marinette Methods
Milwaukee Notes
Oconto No
Ozaukee Guidebook, Notes
Racine Notes
Sheboygan Methods


Data Dissemination Policies. Some coastal counties and cities have formal data pricing and dissemination policies (see Table 8). The Milwaukee County Automated Mapping and Land Information System (MCAMLIS) project has a formal license agreement that requires a signature, copyrights its data, has a fee structure ($60 for the first quarter-section and $30 for each thereafter), and a data distribution policy. Kenosha County recently created guidelines for costs and dissemination of GIS data, charging a price of $40 per PLSS section for digital parcel mapping. The City of Milwaukee charges $25 per quarter-section for digital parcel mapping and $275 for the Master Property Database that covers the entire city. The City of Manitowoc has implemented copyright and a license agreement for GIS data. Finally, Sheboygan County has a voluntary license agreement in place.

Table 8. Data Dissemination Policies for Digital Parcel Mapping

County Data Dissemination Policies
Brown  
Door  
Kenosha Cost Structure and Dissemination Policy1
Kewaunee Digital parcel mapping available for fee from consultant retained by county
Manitowoc See note for City of Manitowoc2
Marinette  
Milwaukee Formal License Agreement, Copyright, Cost Structure3,4
Oconto  
Ozaukee  
Racine  
Sheboygan Voluntary License Agreement

1$40 for each PLSS section; County notification required for dissemination to third party.
2City of Manitowoc has a license agreement, copyright, and a cost structure ($100 per design file type; $500 per complete set) on digital cadastral data.
3$65 for first quarter-section and $30 for each subsequent quarter-section through MCAMLIS.
4City of Milwaukee has a license agreement and a cost structure ($25 per quarter-section) for digital property data.


Chapter 3. Status of Digital Parcel Mapping in Lake Michigan Coastal Counties

Marinette County Digital Parcel Mapping Status

Approximately 12% of digital parcel mapping has been completed in Marinette County. Marinette County provides parcel mapping for cities and villages, but not all are in digital form yet. The local government jurisdictions in Marinette County that border Lake Michigan are shown in Figure 3. The status of digital parcel mapping in these jurisdictions is listed in Table 9.

Table 9. Marinette County Digital Parcel Mapping Completion by Jurisdiction

Jurisdiction
Complete
City of Marinette
0%
Town of Peshtigo
100%

Parcel mapping in Marinette County is compiled using coordinate geometry. Parcels are then tied to the geodetic reference framework. The coordinate system used by the county for digital mapping is Marinette County Coordinates. The data format for digital parcel mapping is AutoCAD. The parcels are not topologically structured, but there are plans to hire an engineering company this year to use ArcCad to build topology. The parcels are coded with a parcel identification number, but a linakge can not presently be made between the digital parcel mapping and the tax roll database. There is some documentation of the methods used for parcel mapping in the county, but FGDC compliant metadata has not been developed.

The contact for digital parcel mapping in Marinette County is:
John Lefebvre
Zoning Administrator
Courthouse
1926 Hall Ave.
Marinette, WI 54143
Phone: (715) 732-7535


Oconto County Digital Parcel Mapping Status

Approximately 10% of digital parcel mapping has been completed in Oconto County. Oconto County provides parcel mapping services for cities and villages. The local government jurisdictions in Oconto County that border Lake Michigan are shown in Figure 4. The status of digital parcel mapping in these jurisdictions is listed in Table 10.

Table 10. Oconto County Digital Parcel Mapping Completion by Jurisdiction

Jurisdiction
Complete
Town of Little River
100%
City of Oconto
100%
Town of Oconto
33%
Town of Pensuakee
0%1
Town of Little Suamico
100%
1Digital parcel mapping for the Town of Pensuakee may be undertaken soon, but may be delayed.

Parcel mapping in Oconto County is compiled by digitizing. Parcels are then tied to the PLSS landnet from the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. The coordinate system used by the county for digital mapping is Oconto County Coordinates. The data format for digital parcel mapping is Arc/Info coverages. The parcels are topologically structured and coded with a parcel identification number. A linakge can be made between the digital parcel mapping and the tax roll database downloaded from the county AS400. The county is working on establishing a live-link to the AS400 mainframe. There is some documentation of the methods used for parcel mapping in the county (e.g. coding scheme and layers), but FGDC compliant metadata has not been developed.

The contact for digital parcel mapping in Oconto County is:
Mark Teuteberg
County Surveyor
Courthouse
301 Washington St
Oconto, WI 54153-1621
Phone: (920) 834-6827


Brown County Digital Parcel Mapping Status

Approximately 55% of digital parcel mapping has been completed in Brown County. Brown County provides parcel mapping services for cities and villages through the County Surveyor’s office. The local government jurisdictions in Brown County that border Lake Michigan are shown in Figure 5. The status of digital parcel mapping in these jurisdictions is listed in Table 11.

Table 11. Brown County Digital Parcel Mapping Completion by Jurisdiction

Jurisdiction
Complete
Town of Suamico
0%
Village of Howard
35%
City of Green Bay
60%
Town of Scott
30%
Town of Green Bay
90%

Parcel mapping in Brown County is compiled by coordinate geometry. Parcels are then tied to the geodetic reference framework. The coordinate system used by the county for digital mapping is Brown County Coordinates. The data format for digital parcel mapping is AutoCAD. Ongoing topology for the digital parcel mapping is not maintained at this time. Topology is built in the Planning Department for specific projects as needed. Creation of topology for digital parcel mapping in Brown County will be worked on in 1998. Parcels are coded with a parcel identification number. There are plans to create parcel identification numbers using the Wisconsin Land Information Board standard. These will be used in conjunction with the existing Brown County Parcel ID via a lookup table. A linakge can be made between the digital parcel mapping and the tax roll database. Metadata that follows the FGDC Content Standard for Digital Geospatial Metadata has been developed for digital parcel mapping in the County Surveyor’s office.

Information about digital parcel mapping in Brown County can be obtained from:
Noel Halvorsen
LIO Coordinator
Brown County Planning
100 N Jefferson St., Room 608
Green Bay, WI 54301
Phone: (920) 448-3400


Door County Digital Parcel Mapping Status

Approximately 90% of digital parcel mapping has been completed in Door County. All digital parcel mapping is expected to be complete by the summer of 1998. Door County provides parcel mapping services for cities and villages. Hardcopy plots are provided for assessors and municipalities. Digital copies are be provided if requested. The local government jurisdictions in Door County that border Lake Michigan are shown in Figure 6. The status of digital parcel mapping in these jurisdictions is listed in Table 12.

Table 12. Door County Digital Parcel Mapping Completion by Jurisdiction

Jurisdiction
Complete
Town of Union
100%
Town of Gardner
100%
Town of Nasewaupee
100%
City of Sturgeon Bay
100%
Town of Sevastapol
100%
Town of Egg Harbor
100%
Village of Egg Harbor
100%
Town of Gibraltar
100%
Village of Ephraim
100%
Village of Sister Bay
100%
Town of Liberty Grove
100%
Town of Washington
100%
Town of Bailey’s Harbor
100%
Town of Jacksonport
100%
Town of Sturgeon Bay
100%
Town of Clay Banks
100%

Parcel mapping in Door County has been compiled using a variety of methods. The following municipalities (Village of Egg Harbor, Village of Ephraim, Village of Sister Bay, Town of Nasewaupee, Town of Egg Harbor, Town of Washington, Town of Jacksonport, Town of Sturgeon Bay, and the Town of Clay Banks) were completed by 5 or 6 different employees in the position of Mapping Technician from about 1986 to 1992. Due in part to the rapid turnover in the position, parcel maps were compiled using a variety of methods and standards. Recently, this parcel data has been "fitted" to the County’s base map, in Wisconsin State Plane Coordinates, Central Zone, NAD83(91), as part of the County Parcel Mapping Project, which is still in progress. The remaining municipalities in production are compiled from hard copy source documents and greater control, and entered using coordinate geometry, to produce a somewhat higher degree of reliability than the first group. The data format is AutoCAD for plotting (including parcels, road names, subdivisions,...) and ArcCAD coverages for parcels only. The ArcCAD parcels are topologically structured and coded with a parcel identification number. A linakge can be made between the digital parcel mapping and the tax roll database. Specifications have been developed for parcel mapping and a short description of parcel mapping methods is included on the AutoCAD drawing files. FGDC compliant metadata has not been developed.

The contact for digital parcel mapping in Door County is:
Tom Haight
GIS Specialist
Door County Courthouse
421 Nebraska Street
Sturgeon Bay, WI 54235-0670
Phone: (920) 746-2391


Kewaunee County Digital Parcel Mapping Status

Approximately 52% of digital parcel mapping has been completed in Kewaunee County. Kewaunee County provides parcel mapping services for cities and villages. The local government jurisdictions in Kewaunee County that border Lake Michigan are shown in Figure 7. The status of digital parcel mapping in these jurisdictions is listed in Table 13.

Table 13. Kewaunee County Digital Parcel Mapping Completion by Jurisdiction

Jurisdiction
Complete
Town of Red River
100%
Town of Ahnapee
100%
City of Algoma
100%
Town of Pierce
100%
City of Kewaunee
100%
Town of West Kewaunee
100%
Town of Carlton
0%1
1Expected completion of digital parcel mapping for the Town of Carlton is 1999.

Parcel mapping in Kewaunee County is compiled by Ruekert & Mielke, Inc using coordinate geometry methods where possible. Parcels are then tied to the geodetic reference framework. The coordinate system used by the county for digital mapping is Wisconsin State Plane Coordinates, Central Zone, NAD83. The data format for digital parcel mapping is AutoCAD. The parcels are topologically structured and coded with a parcel identification number. A linakge can be made between the digital parcel mapping and the tax roll database using Progis software and a link to the GCS database software. There is no metadata for parcel mapping in the county.

The contact for digital parcel mapping in Kewaunee County is:
Marilyn G. Mueller
Register of Deeds
Kewaunee County Courthouse
613 Dodge St
Kewaunee, WI 54216
Phone: (920) 388-4410 x126


Manitowoc County Digital Parcel Mapping Status

Digital parcel mapping has been completed in Manitowoc County, although the county does not provide parcel mapping services for cities and villages. The local government jurisdictions in Manitowoc County that border Lake Michigan are shown in Figure 8. The status of digital parcel mapping in these jurisdictions is listed in Table 14.

Table 14. Manitowoc County Digital Parcel Mapping Completion by Jurisdiction
Jurisdiction
Complete
Town of Two Creeks
100%
Town of Two Rivers
100%
City of Two Rivers
80%
City of Manitowoc
100%
Town of Manitowoc
100%
Town of Newton
100%
Town of Centerville
100%
Village of Cleveland
100%

Parcels in the unincorporated area of Manitowoc County were "drawn" using AutoCAD software. The county parcel map is a good cartographic representation of property boundaries, but parcels are not "closed" and there are many gaps and overshoots. Building topology for parcels is a very difficult and time-consuming process. Parcels are "floating" and are not tied to a geodetic reference system. The coordinate system used by the county for other digital mapping is Manitowoc County Coordinates. The parcels are coded with a parcel identification number as a label point. A linakge can not be made between the digital parcel mapping and the tax roll database. There is no metadata for parcel mapping in the county.

Information about digital parcel mapping in Manitowoc County can be obtained from:
Dean Kaderabek
Senior Planner
Manitowoc County Parks and Planning Commission
4319 Expo Drive
Manitowoc, WI 54220
Phone: (920) 683-4185

City of Manitowoc
Parcels for the City of Manitowoc were compiled using a variety of methods. In the original area of the city, parcels were digitized from plat maps from 1988 to 1989. In other areas of the city, parcels were compiled using coordinate geometry. In 1996, 400-500 additional geodetic control points were added. The City has contracted with Rust Environmental of Sheboygan to modify and improve the existing digital parcel mapping to support use in a GIS by creating "closed" polygons. Parcel mapping will also be converted to county coordinates to register with digital orthophotos prepared for the city. Digital parcel mapping is in Intergraph format. Parcels are coded with a ten-digit parcel identification number representing subdivision, lot, block, and a check number.

The City of Manitowoc has implemented copyright and a license agreement for GIS data.

The contact for digital parcel mapping in the City of Manitowoc is:
Steve Kipping
City of Manitowoc
817 Franklin St.
Manitowoc, WI 54221-1597
Phone: (920) 683-4665

City of Two Rivers
Digital parcel mapping for the City of Two Rivers is expected to be complete during the summer of 1998. The City has contracted with Rust Environmental of Sheboygan to compile digital parcel mapping. Parcels are digitized from paper maps and tied to survey control. Parcels are in Wisconsin State Plane Coordinates-Central Zone. Parcel mapping is in Intergraph format.

The contact for digital parcel mapping in the City of Two Rivers is:
Mike Lewis
City of Two Rivers Engineering Department
1717 East Park Street
Two Rivers, WI 54241-3060
Phone: (920) 793-5539


Sheboygan County Digital Parcel Mapping Status

Digital parcel mapping has been completed in Sheboygan County. Sheboygan County provides parcel mapping services for cities and villages, except the City of Sheboygan. The local government jurisdictions in Sheboygan County that border Lake Michigan are shown in Figure 9. The status of digital parcel mapping in these jurisdictions is listed in Table 15.

Table 15. Sheboygan County Digital Parcel Mapping Completion by Jurisdiction

Jurisdiction
Complete
Town of Mosel
100%
Town of Sheboygan
100%
City of Sheboygan
100%
Town of Wilson
100%
Town of Holland
100%

Parcel mapping in Sheboygan County is compiled by using a variety of methods. Coordinate geometry was utilized for areas north of the City of Sheboygan. For areas south of the City of Sheboygan, hard copy parcel maps were scanned and converted to vectors. These areas will be updated using coordinate geometry. Interns will work on this process during the summer of 1998. An estimated date for completion of coordinate geometry parcels for the county is September 1999. The parcels are topologically structured and coded with a parcel identification number. A linakge can be made between the digital parcel mapping and the tax roll database. The coordinate system used by the county for digital mapping is Sheboygan County Coordinates. The data formats for digital parcel mapping are Arc/Info coverages and ArcView shapefiles. There is some documentation of the methods used for parcel mapping in the county, but FGDC compliant metadata has not been developed. Sheboygan County has instituted a voluntary license agreement for digital data sharing.

The contact for digital parcel mapping in Sheboygan County is:
Ed Harvey, Jr., RLS/PE
County Surveyor/Real Property Lister
Highway Dept.
1211 N 23rd St.
Sheboygan, WI 53081
Phone: (920) 459-3822

City of Sheboygan
Parcels for the City of Sheboygan were completed in AutoCAD in Wisconsin State Plane Coordinates, but this method proved unacceptable. The process was started over using coordinate geometry with AutoCAD and Softdesk software. Digital parcel mapping will be converted to Sheboygan County Coordinates. Digital parcel mapping is available in AutoCAD .DWG or .DXF format.

The contact for digital parcel mapping in the City of Sheboygan is:
Thomas Horness
GIS Specialist
City of Sheboygan
833 Center Ave.
Sheboygan, WI 53081
Phone: (920) 459-3397


Ozaukee County Digital Parcel Mapping Status

Approximately 60% of digital parcel mapping has been completed in Ozaukee County. Ozaukee County provides parcel mapping services for cities and villages. The local government jurisdictions in Ozaukee County that border Lake Michigan are shown in Figure 10. The status of digital parcel mapping in these jurisdictions is listed in Table 16.

Table 16. Ozaukee County Digital Parcel Mapping Completion by Jurisdiction

Jurisdiction
Complete
Town of Belgium
10%
Town of Port Washington
15%
City of Port Washington
50%1
Town of Grafton
100%
City of Mequon
85%2
Village of Bayside (part)
100%
1Some subdivisions in the City of Port Washington are in a digital format tied to the State Plane Coordinate system and some are digital, but not yet tied to a coordinate system.
2Digital parcel mapping in the City of Mequon has been completed for 5 of 6 Lake Michigan coastal sections.

Parcel mapping in Ozaukee County is compiled using coordinate geometry. Parcels are then tied to the geodetic reference framework. The coordinate system used by the county for digital mapping is Wisconsin State Plane Coordinates, South Zone, NAD27. The data format for digital parcel mapping is AutoCAD. The parcels are topologically structured (lines snapped and broken at intersections) and coded with a parcel identification number as AutoCAD text. A linkage can be made between the digital parcel mapping and the tax roll database using Intergraph MGE, but this has not been done yet. Lines are tied to a centroid that has an ID and an area that could be shaded in with a calculated area. Parcel mapping methods are documented in the Ozaukee County Parcel Mapping Guidebook and handwritten notes and deed numbers are identified on hard copy parcel maps. FGDC compliant metadata has not been developed.

Information about digital parcel mapping in Ozaukee County can be obtained from:
Damon Anderson
LIO Coordinator
Ozaukee County
121 W. Main St.
Port Washington, WI 53074-0994
Phone: (414) 284-8262


Milwaukee County Digital Parcel Mapping Status

Parcel mapping in all areas of Milwaukee County, except the City of Milwaukee and the City of West Allis, is completed by the Southeastern Wisconsin Regional Planning Commission (SEWRPC) through the Milwaukee County Automated Mapping and Land Information System (MCAMLIS) project. MCAMLIS is a consortium of Milwaukee County local governments and utilities for the purpose of implementing cadastral mapping, planimetric and topographic mapping, and addressing. Approximately 90% of digital parcel mapping in the MCAMLIS project area has been completed. The local government jurisdictions in Milwaukee County that border Lake Michigan are shown in Figure 11. The status of digital parcel mapping in these jurisdictions is listed in Table 17.

Table 17. Milwaukee County Digital Parcel Mapping Completion by Jurisdiction

Jurisdiction
Complete
Village of Bayside (part)
100%
Village of Fox Point
100%
Village of Whitefish Bay
100%
Village of Shorewood
100%
City of Milwaukee
100%
City of St. Francis
100%1
City of Cudahy
100%
City of South Milwaukee
100%
City of Oak Creek
100%
1Some areas around the City of St. Francis are being redone.

Parcel mapping in Milwaukee County is compiled using a variety of methods. North shore communities (Village of Bayside, Village of Fox Point, Village of Whitefish Bay, and Village of Shorewood) were board digitized. South shore communities (City of St. Francis, City of Cudahy, City of South Milwaukee, and City of Oak Creek) were compiled using coordinate geometry. The coordinate system used by the county for digital mapping is Wisconsin State Plane Coordinates, South Zone, NAD27. The data formats for distribution of digital parcel mapping by SEWRPC are Genamap and AutoCAD DXF. The data format for digital parcel mapping in the City of Milwaukee is Intergraph DGN. The parcels are topologically structured (polygons and connected line segments) and coded with a 10-digit parcel identification number. A linakge can be made between the digital parcel mapping and the tax roll database, but this is not done at SEWRPC. There is some handwritten documentation of parcel compilation methods, but FGDC compliant metadata has not been developed.

Digital parcel mapping in Milwaukee County is available through the MCAMLIS project. MCAMLIS has a formal license agreement that requires a signature, copyrights its data, and has a fee structure and a data distribution policy. The policy for obtaining digital parcel mapping is: (1) determine whether the request is commercial or non-commercial; (2) recipient signs a license agreement which precludes providing the data to others; and 3) the first quarter-section of parcel data can be purchased for $65 and each subsequent quarter-section is $30. Tax roll data are available from the individual coastal municipalities.

Information about digital parcel mapping in Milwaukee County can be obtained from:
Tom Patterson
Southeastern Wisconsin Regional Planning Commission
916 N. East Ave.
P.O. Box 1607
Waukesha, WI 53187-1607
Phone: (414) 547-6721

City of Milwaukee
The City of Milwaukee has completed digital parcel mapping, but parcels are not structured as polygons. The Master Property Database can be tied to parcel centroids. Land use is depicted as symbols within the parcel boundary. Digital parcel mapping is available in Intergraph .DGN format.

Digital parcel mapping is available for $25 per quarter-section in Intergraph .DGN format on compact disc. The Master Property Database for the entire city is available for $275 on compact disc.

The contact for digital parcel mapping in the City of Milwaukee is:
Nancy Olson
GIS Manager
City of Milwaukee
809 N. Broadway, Suite 400
Milwaukee, WI 53202
Phone: (414) 286-8710


Racine County Digital Parcel Mapping Status

Approximately 66% of digital parcel mapping has been completed in Racine County. Racine County provides parcel mapping services for cities and villages. The local government jurisdictions in Racine County that border Lake Michigan are shown in Figure 12. The status of digital parcel mapping in these jurisdictions is listed in Table 18.

Table 18. Racine County Digital Parcel Mapping Completion by Jurisdiction

Jurisdiction
Complete
Town of Caledonia
70%1
Village of Wind Point
0%
City of Racine
100%
Village of North Bay
0%
Town of Mount Pleasant
100%
1Digital parcel mapping for the Town of Caledonia was expected to be complete by May 31, 1998, but has been delayed. The eastern (coastal) portions of the Town of Caledonia are not yet complete.

Parcel mapping in Racine County is compiled using coordinate geometry. The coordinate system used by the county for digital mapping is Wisconsin State Plane Coordinates, South Zone, NAD27. The data format for digital parcel mapping is Genamap. The parcels are topologically structured and coded with a parcel identification number. A linakge can be made between the digital parcel mapping and the tax roll database. There is some hard copy documentation of the methods used for parcel mapping in the county. Digital metadata will be collected for new parcel mapping done west of I-94. Nine fields of information will be collected, including a qualifications field.

The contact for digital parcel mapping in Racine County is:
Arnold L. Clement
Planning/Development Director
14200 Washington Ave
Sturtevant, WI 53177
Phone: (414) 886-8470


Kenosha County Digital Parcel Mapping Status

Digital parcel mapping has been completed in Kenosha County. Kenosha County provides parcel mapping services for cities and villages. The local government jurisdictions in Kenosha County that border Lake Michigan are shown in Figure 13. The status of digital parcel mapping in these jurisdictions is listed in Table 19.

Table 19. Kenosha County Digital Parcel Mapping Completion by Jurisdiction

Jurisdiction
Complete
Town of Somers
100%
City of Kenosha
100%
Village of Pleasant Prairie
100%

Parcel mapping in Kenosha County was mostly compiled by digitizing with reference to certified survey maps (CSMs), subdivisions, and tax roll data. When inconsistencies were present, legal descriptions were examined. Parcel mapping for Kenosha County was compiled at the Southeastern Wisconsin Regional Planning Commission (SEWRPC). Kenosha County maintains the digital parcel mapping using coordinate geometry. The County is currently working with a consultant to COGO difficult areas. The coordinate system used by the county for digital mapping is Wisconsin State Plane Coordinates, South Zone, NAD27. The data format for digital parcel mapping is Genamap. The parcels are topologically structured and coded with a parcel identification number. A linakge can be made between the digital parcel mapping and the tax roll database. Metadata for parcel mapping has not been collected, but this will be addressed later.

Kenosha County recently created guidelines for costs and dissemination of GIS data. Digital cadastral data are available for a price of $40 per PLSS section. Digital cadastral data are available in the following four formats: Intergraph .DGN, AutoCAD .DXF, ArcView Shapefiles, and Genamap. The data are available using the following media/delivery formats (8mm DAT tape written in Unix "tar" format ($25 each), 3.5" DOS diskettes, files compressed if necessary ($1.50 each), Compact Disc, written to ISO 9660 Level II specifications ($30 each), ftp download (no charge), and http download (no charge).

Information about digital parcel mapping in Kenosha County can be obtained from:
Al Brokmeier
Director, LIO
1010 56th St.
Kenosha, WI 53140-3738
Phone: (414) 653-2622


Chapter 4. References

Epstein, Earl F. and D. David Moyer. 1993. "The Parcel Map" in Multipurpose Land Information Systems: The Guidebook. Edited by Patricia M. Brown and D. David Moyer. Silver Spring, Maryland: Federal Geodetic Control Committee.

Tulloch, David and Bernard J. Niemann, Jr. 1996. "Evaluating Innovation: The Wisconsin Land Information Program" Geo Info Systems. Vol. 6, No. 10 (October 1996): 40-44.


Appendix A. Lake Michigan Coastal County GIS Data Survey Form

Date/Time of Survey:
Location of Survey:
Person Conducting Survey:
Persons Surveyed:
    Parcels
  1. Confirm the % complete of parcels in county in digital form (as listed in WLIB parcel survey).
  2. Does the county provide parcel mapping for cities and villages? If not, obtain contact name and phone numbers.
  3. If parcel mapping is only partially complete for the county, list % of coastal parcels complete by coastal MCD.
  4. Confirm parcel mapping compilation method (of six listed in WLIB survey).
  5. Confirm the coordinate system used in the county.
  6. Is there metadata for parcel mapping?
  7. What is the data format for parcel mapping (AutoCAD, Intergraph, Genamap, A/I, shapefile, other)?
  8. (If appropriate data format) Does the county parcel mapping have topology?
  9. Are digital parcels coded with Parcel Ids?
  10. Can a linkage be made between digital parcel mapping and tax roll/assessment data?
  11. Does the tax roll/assessment data include ownership? assessment category? acreage? land value? improvement value?
  12. Can I obtain a sample of digital parcel mapping and tax roll attributes for a coastal PLSS section?
  13. Photogrammetric base map

  14. Does the county have a digital vector-based photogrammetric base map?
  15. How much of the county is complete in digital form?
  16. If digital base map is only partially complete for the county, list % complete by coastal MCD.
  17. If digital base map is only partially complete for a coastal MCD, list % complete by coastal sections.
  18. What is the data format for the digital base map (AutoCAD, Intergraph, Genamap, A/I, shapefile, other)?
  19. Is there metadata for the digital base map?
  20. Does the digital base map include building footprints?
  21. Are buildings classified by use (sf res, mf res, comm, ind, public,…)?
  22. Are buildings classified by type (house, shed, garage, barn, …)?
  23. Does the digital base map include hydrography?
  24. Does the hydrography include a classification that distinguishes between Great Lakes shore and other lakes and streams?
  25. What does the Great Lakes shoreline represent (l/w edge at date of photo, OHWM, other)?
  26. Does the county maintain a digital representation of the Great Lakes shoreline over time?
  27. Does the digital base map include street centerlines? pavement edge? rights-of-way)?
  28. Are the streets classified by ownership/maintenance (local, county, state, federal, private,…)?
  29. Does the digital base map include the location of shore protection structures?
  30. Are the shore structures classified by type? age?
  31. Can I obtain a sample of the digital base map for a coastal PLSS section?
  32. Digital Orthophotos

  33. Confirm % complete of digital orthophotos?
  34. If partial completion, for what coastal areas
  35. If DOQ, has the county obtained them yet?
  36. Does the county have digital orthophotos for more than one date?
  37. If other than DOQ, list resolution.
  38. If other than DOQ, list file format (tif, bil, …)
  39. Is there metadata for the digital orthophotos?
  40. If other than DOQ, can I obtain the digital orthophotos for coastal area (1000 m zone)?
  41. Elevations

  42. Does the county have digital contour maps? Contour Interval?
  43. Does the county have a digital elevation model? Resolution?
  44. Does the county have a digital terrain model?
  45. How much of the county is complete in digital form?
  46. If the elevation map is only partially complete for the county, list % complete by coastal MCD.
  47. If the elevation map is only partially complete for a coastal MCD, list % complete by coastal sections.
  48. Are bluff edge, bluff toe, bluff height, and/or stable slope ratio explicitly identified on the digital elevation mapping?
  49. Is there metadata for digital elevation mapping?
  50. Can I obtain a sample of the elevation mapping for a coastal PLSS section?
  51. Zoning

  52. Does the county have a digital version of its shoreland/floodplain zoning ordinance?
  53. Does the county have digital mapping of shoreland zoning jurisdictions? For what coastal areas?
  54. Does the county have digital mapping of Great Lakes erosion setbacks?
  55. Does the county have digital floodplain mapping? For what coastal areas?
  56. Does the county have digital mapping of areas subject to flooding due to wave runup from the Great Lakes?
  57. Does the county have digital mapping of traditional zoning? For what coastal areas?
  58. Soils

  59. Does the county have digital soils mapping? For what coastal areas?
  60. Wetlands

  61. Does the county have digital wetlands mapping? For what coastal areas?
  62. Land Use

  63. Does the county have digital land use mapping? For what coastal areas?
  64. How was the digital land use mapping compiled?
  65. What Land Use Classification system is used (DOR, SIC, SLUC, local, regional,…)?
  66. Natural Resources

  67. Does the county have digital geology mapping? For what coastal areas?
  68. Does the county have digital mapping of Great Lakes recession rates?
  69. Does the county have digital mapping of lakebed grants
  70. Does the county have digital mapping of the location of public parks
  71. Infrastructure and Facility Management

  72. Does the county have digital transportation features other than roads (railroads, harbors, airports, transit)? For what coastal areas?
  73. Does the county have digital gas utility features? Contact?
  74. Does the county have digital electric utility features? Contact?
  75. Does the county have digital sewer utility features? Contact?
  76. Does the county have digital storm drain utility features? Contact?
  77. Does the county have digital water utility features? Contact?
  78. Does the county have digital telephone utility features? Contact?
  79. Does the county have digital cable television utility features? Contact?

Last modified by David Hart on February 15, 1999