Title Page with information on ordering this book
Chapter 1 Introduction to Community Planning
Chapter 2 Types of Plans & Overview of Implementation Tools
Chapter 3 The Plan Commission
Chapter 4 Data Collection and Analysis
Chapter 5 Community Design
Chapter 6 Zoning
Chapter 7 Subdivision Regulations
Chapter 8 Intergovernmental Issues
Chapter 9 Transportation
Chapter 10 Natural Resources
Chapter 11 Agriculture
Chapter 12 Housing
Chapter 13 Economic Development
Appendix 1
Appendix 2

Preface and Acknowledgments

Chapter 1. Introduction to Community Planning

1. Why is Planning Important?

1.1 Planning and the Public Good

2. The Public Planning Process

2.1 Preparing for the Planning Process

2.1.1 Think About the Geographic Area Planning Should Cover

2.1.2 Explore the Possibility of Cooperative Planning

2.1.3 Budgeting for the Planning Process

2.1.4 Consider Whether You Need an Altogether New Plan

2.1.5 Consider Who Should Prepare the Plan

2.1.6 Prepare a Request for Proposals

2.1.7 Think About Who is Going to Use the Plan, and How

2.1.8 Think About the Form and Appearance of the Plan

2.2 Elements of the Planning Process

2.2.1 Involving Citizens

The General Survey
The Consensus Model
An "Open House"
Key Community Contact Interviews
The Focus Group
Nominal Group Process
The Futures Workshop or Retreat
The Citizens’ Advisory Committee
Simulation Games
Design Charettes
Guided Tours
Newsletters and Informational Meetings
Encourage Citizens by Celebrating Successes
Understanding the Realities of Citizen Participation

2.2.2 Planning Approaches/Issue Identification

The Blank Slate Approach--Planning as a Learning Process
The Problem-Oriented Approach
The Strategic Issues Approach
The Blue-Sky Approach--Visioning
The Asset-Based Planning Approach

2.2.3 Data Collection and Analysis

2.2.4 Defining Community Goals and Objectives

2.2.5 Evaluation of Alternatives

2.2.6 Plan Development

2.2.7 Plan Adoption

2.2.8 Implementation: Using the Plan for Continuing Decisions

2.2.9 Maintaining Plan Effectiveness

2.3 Attributes of an Effective Plan

2.3.1 An Effective Plan Presents Essential Data--But Not Too Much

2.3.2 An Effective Plan Describes Alternative Futures, and the Consequences of Alternative Courses of Action

2.3.3 An Effective Plan Communicates Key Ideas Clearly and Effectively

2.3.4 A Good Plan Offers a Well-Thought-Out and Integrated Program of Action

2.3.5 An Effective Plan is Realistic and Achieves Positive Results

2.3.6 An Effective Plan Explains the Process Used to Create the Plan

3. Resource Materials


Chapter 2 Types of Plans & Overview of Implementation Tools

1. Types of Plans

1.1. Master Plans

1.2 County Development Plans

1.3 Comprehensive Plans

1.4 Regional Master Plans

1.5 Other Types of Plans

1.5.1 Metropolitan Transportation Plans

1.5.2 Sewer Service Area Plans

1.5.3 Cooperative Plan for Boundary Changes

1.5.4 Agricultural Preservation Plans

1.5.5 County Land and Water Resource Management Plans

1.5.6 County Forest Land Use Plans

1.5.7 County Park System Plans

1.5.8 County Platting/Transportation Plans

1.5.9 County Rural Planning

1.5.10 Country Solid Waste Management Plans

1.5.11 Water Resource Related Planning

1.5.12 Public Facilities Needs Assessment

1.5.13 Tax Increment Financing Project Plans

1.5.14 Comprehensive Town Park System Plans

1.5.15 Strategic Plans

1.5.16 Special Area Plans

1.5.17 Site Plans

1.5.18 Capital Improvement Plans

2. Implementing the Plan

2.1 Education

2.2 Area or Other Special Plans

2.3 Local Decision Making

2.4 Interim Control Ordinances

2.4.1 The Functional Moratoria

2.4.2 Local Authority to Impose a Moratorium

2.4.3 "Helpful Hints"

2.5 Zoning

2.5.1 General Zoning

2.5.2 Special Types of Zoning

Floodplain Zoning
Shoreland Zoning
Exclusive Agricultural Zoning
Extraterritorial Zoning

2.6 Subdivision or Land Division Regulation

2.7 Official Maps

2.8 Building, Housing, and Sanitary Codes, and Private Sewage System Ordinances

2.9 Aesthetic Tools

2.9.1 Sign Ordinances

2.9.2 Historic Preservation Ordinances

2.9.3 Design Review

2.10 Fiscal Tools

2.10.1 Capital Improvements Program

2.10.2 Impact Fees

2.10.3 Use-Value Assessment

2.10.4 Tax Increment Financing (TIF)

2.11 Public Acquisition Programs

2.11.1 Eminent Domain

2.11.2 Purchase of Development Rights

2.11.3 Transfer of Development Rights

2.11.4 Conservation Easements

2.12 Annexation/Incorporation

2.13 Cooperative Boundary Agreements

2.14 Intergovernmental Agreements

2.15 Special Purpose Districts

2.15.1 Metropolitan Sewerage Districts

2.15.2 Town Sanitary Districts

2.15.3 Inland Lake Protection and Rehabilitation Districts

2.15.4 Business Improvement Districts

2.15.5 Redevelopment Areas

2.16 Land Trusts

3. The Takings Issue

3.1 Vested Rights


Chapter 3 The Plan Commission

1. Plan Commission Structure

1.1 The Municipal Plan Commission

1.2 The County Planning and Zoning Agency or Commission

1.3 Towns Without Village Powers

2. Plan Commission Functions

2.1 Plan Making

2.2 Subdivisions

2.3 Zoning

2.4 Official Map

2.5 Other Referrals

2.6 Other Programs

2.7 Day to Day Operations

2.8 Hold Public Hearings

3. Convening and Conducting Meetings

3.1 Meetings Dates

3.2 Giving Notice of Meetings

3.3 Other Notice Requirements

3.4 The Conduct of Public Hearings

3.5 Due Process

4. What Makes A Good Plan Commissioner?

4.1 Ethics

5. Resource Materials


Chapter 4 Data Collection and Analysis

1. Geographic Information Systems

1.1 GIS Technologies

1.1.1 Software

1.1.2 Hardware

1.1.3 Related Technologies

1.2 GIS Data

1.2.1 Land Ownership

1.2.2 Base Map

1.2.3 Land Use

1.2.4 Zoning

1.2.5 Hydrography

1.2.6 Topography

1.2.7 Imagery

1.2.8 Soils

1.3 Wisconsin Land Information Program

2. Population, Housing, and Employment Data

3. Land Supply/Demand

4. Fiscal Impact Analysis

4.1 Case Study Approach

4.2 Per Capita Multiplier Approach

4.3 Proportional Valuation Method

4.4 Service Standard Method

4.5 Comparable City Method

4.6 Employment Anticipation Method

4.7 Revenue Estimation

4.8 The Hierarchy of Land Uses

4.9 A Final Word About Fiscal Impact Analysis

5. Resource Materials


Chapter 5 Community Design

1. Design Review

1.1 Crafting Design Guidelines

2. Traditional Neighborhood Design

3. Cluster Development

4. Historic Preservation

4.1 Historic Designations

4.1.1 State Register of Historic Places

4.1.2 National Register of Historic Places

4.1.3 Local Register of Historic Places

4.2 Historic Preservation Planning

4.3 Historic Preservation Ordinances

4.3.1 Special Requirements for Cities and Villages

4.3.2 Provisions for All Communities

Certification of Preservation Ordinances
Certified Local Government
Local Actions Affecting Historic Properties
Sale or Lease of Historic Properties

4.3.3. Burial Sites

4.4 Financial Incentives for Preservation

5. Resource Materials


Chapter 6 Zoning

1. The Zoning Framework

1.1 Zoning Powers and Responsibilities: Wisconsin Counties, Towns, Cities and Villages

1.1.1 Counties

1.1.2 Towns

Town Zoning Where There is No County Zoning
Town Zoning Under "Village Powers"

1.1.3 Cities and Village

1.2 Developing a Zoning Ordinance

1.2.1 Initiation of Work

1.2.2 Preparing the Ordinance Draft

1.2.3 The Zoning Ordinance Text

1.2.4 The Zoning Ordinance Map

1.2.5 Administrative Matters

1.2.6 Amendments

1.2.7 Enforcement Provisions

1.2.8 Community Dialogue on a Draft or Redraft

1.3 Formal Processing of the Ordinance

1.3.1 Identification of the Proposed Zoning Ordinance

1.3.2 Public Hearing

1.3.3 Plan Commission Action Following the Hearing

1.3.4 Receipt of Draft and Action by Government Body

1.3.5 Publication and Notice of Adopted Ordinance and Required Consents by Other Governing Bodies

County Zoning Ordinances
Town Zoning Ordinances
City and Village Ordinances; Town Ordinances Adopted Under Village Powers

1.4 Extraterritorial Zoning

2. Amending the Zoning Ordinance

2.1 General Principles Applicable to Zoning Amendments

2.2 Amendment Procedures: Counties

2.2.1 Town Veto Over County Zoning Amendments

2.2.2 Protest Petitions

2.2.3 County Board Action

2.2.4 After a Decision Has Been Made

2.3 Town, Village, and City Amendment Procedures

2.3.1 Amendment Procedures: Towns Not Exercising Village Powers

2.3.2 Amendment Procedures: Cities, Villages, and Towns Exercising Village Powers

2.4 Spot Zoning

2.5 Conditional and Contract Zoning

2.5.1 Contract Zoning

2.5.2 Conditional Zoning

2.6 The Comprehensive Revision Amendment

3. Variations to Traditional Zoning

3.1 Planned Unit Developments

3.1.1 The Regulatory Process

3.1.2 Standards

3.2 Floating Zones

3.3 Performance Zoning

3.4 Bonus and Incentive Zoning

3.5 Overlay Zoning

3.6 Mixed Use Zoning

3.7 Cluster (or Average Density) Zoning

3.8 Inclusionary Zoning

4. Administering a Zoning Program

4.1 Structure for Administration

4.2 Process of Administration

4.2.1 Community Education

4.2.2 Applying the Code

4.2.3 Points on Permit What Ifs?

4.2.4 Conditional Uses

4.3 Adjusting the Code

4.3.1 Rezoning

4.3.2 Variances

4.3.3 Administrative Appeals

4.4 Nonconfomities

4.4.1 Statutory Definitions

Nonconforming Use
Nonconforming Structure
Nonconforming Lot

4.4.2 Statutory Protection of Nonconforming Uses From Local Zoning Regulations

4.4.3 Statutory Limitation on Extensions, Expansions, or Alterations

4.4.4 Discontinuance of Nonconforming Uses

4.4.5 A Summary of Nonconforming Use Basics

4.4.6 Approaches to Nonconformities

4.5 Enforcing the Code

4.5.1 Citizen Enforcement Actions

5. Resource Materials


Chapter 7 Subdivision Regulations

1. The Subdivision Regulation Framework

1.1 The Evolution of Subdivision Control in Wisconsin

1.2 Subdivision Powers and Responsibilities: State, Counties, Towns, Cities, and Villages

1.2.1 State Agency Review

1.2.2 Local Government Authority

The Requirements of Chapter 236
Any Local Ordinance
The Master Plan

1.2.3. Counties and Towns (Unincorporated Areas)

1.2.4 Cities/Villages (Incorporated Areas)

1.2.5 Extraterritorial Plat Review

1.3 Condominium Subdivisions

2. The Local Subdivision Review Process

2.1 The Pre-application Conference

2.2 Preliminary Plat Review

2.2.1 What is the Preliminary Plat -- Substance

2.2.2 Preliminary Plat Review -- Procedure

Local Approval
Review by "Objecting" Agencies

2.3 Final Plat Review

2.3.1 What is the Final Plat--Substance

2.3.2 Final Plat Review--Procedure

2.4 Vacations and Replats

3. Subdivision Design Standards

4. Financing Subdivision Improvements

4.1 Required Improvements

4.2 Financial Guarantees for Completion and Maintenance of Improvements

4.3 Dedication of Land or Fees in Lieu of Dedication

4.4 Impact Fees

4.4.1 Types of Facilities for Which Impact Fees May Be Used

4.4.2 Procedure for Establishing Impact Fees

4.5 Legal Standards for Impact Fees, Dedications, and Fees-in-Lieu

4.6 Special Assessments

4.7 User fees

5. Resource Materials


Chapter 8 Intergovernmental Issues

1. Annexation

1.1 Types of Annexation

1.1.1. Unanimous Approval

1.1.2 Direct Annexation

1.1.3 Annexation by Referendum

1.1.4 Annexation of Owned Territory

1.1.5 Annexation by Court-Ordered Referendum

1.2 The Petition

1.3 Annexation Maps

1.4 Review of Municipal Annexations by the State

1.5 Filing with the Office of the Secretary of the State

1.6 Other Annexation Issues

2. Intergovernmental Agreements

2.1 Forms of Cooperative Agreements

2.1.1 General Intergovernmental Agreements

2.1.2 Boundaries Set by Judicial Decree

2.1.3 Boundary Change by Cooperative Plan

2.1.4 Municipal Revenue Sharing

3. Incorporation

4. Relationship of Local Planning to State/Federal Lands and Laws

4.1 Telecommunications -- Wireless Facilities Siting

4.1.1 Impact on Local Authority

4.1.2 Need for Planning & Cooperation

4.2 Local Regulation of Satellite "Dishes" and Television Antennas

4.3 Americans with Disabilities Act

5. Indian Nations

6. Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR)


Chapter 9 Transportation

1. Land Use and Transportation

2. Planning Assistance

2.1 MPR/RPC Planning Assistance

2.2 State Multi Modal Transportation Studies

2.3 State Planning and Research (SPR)

2.4 Transit Development Plans (TSPs)

2.5 Transportation Demand Management (TDM)

2.6 Surface Transportation Program (STP)--Discretionary

2.7 Transportation Facilities Economic Assistance (TEA) and Development Program

2.8 Statewide Transportation Enhancements Program (STEP)

2.9 Aeronautics Assistance

3. Transportation Facility Control

3.1 Functional Classification of Streets and Highways

3.2 Access Control

3.3 Driveway Permitting

3.4 Access Covenant

3.5 Transportation Impact Analyses (TIA)

3.6 Land Division/Development Review

3.7 Zoning/Site Plan Review

3.8 Land Use Planning Around Airports


Chapter 10 Natural Resources

1. Natural Resources Management

1.1 DNR’s Organizational Structure

1.1.1 Geographic Management Units

1.2 DNR Property Acquisition and Management

1.2.1 Master Planning

1.2.2 Payments in Lieu of Taxes

1.3 Stewardship Programs

2. Floodplain and Shoreland Zoning

2.1 County, City, and Village Floodplain Ordinances

2.2 Shoreland Management Zoning Ordinances

2.3 City and Village Shoreland Wetland Protecting Ordinances

3. Water Management Regulations

3.1 Water Management Permits

3.1.1 Piers, Docks and Boathouses

3.1.2 Dams

3.1.3 Other Water Regulation Laws

3.2 Wetland Regulations and Water Quality Standards

3.3 Erosion Control and Storm Water Management

3.4 Inland Lake Protection and Rehabilitation Districts

4. Wastewater and Drinking Water Management

4.1 Sewer Service Area Plans

4.2 Wellhead Protection

4.3 Nonpoint Source Water Pollution Abatement

4.4 Clean Water Fund

4.5 Sanitary and Metropolitan Sewerage Districts

5. Forest Lands Management

5.1 Forest Land Tax Programs

5.2 County Forest Master Plans

6. Endangered and Threatened Species Management

6.1 Protection of Endangered and Threatened Species

6.2 Natural Areas Program

7. Solid and Hazardous Waste Management

7.1 Solid Waste Management Planning

7.2 Contaminated Lands (‘Brownfields") Remediation

7.2.1 Brownfields Financial Assistance

7.2.2 Civil Protections

7.3 Petroleum Environmental Cleanup Fund Award (PECFA)

8. Mining Regulations

8.1 Nonmetallic Mining

8.2 Metallic Mining

8.2.1 Local Zoning Approval of Mining

9. State and National Riverways

9.1 Lower Wisconsin State Riverway

9.2 Lower St. Croix National Scenic Riverway

10. Wisconsin Environmental Policy Act (WEPA)

11. Resource Materials


Chapter 11 Agriculture

1. Farmland Preservation Planning

1.1 Background

1.1.1 Land Use Planning

1.1.2 Soil and Water Conservation

1.1.3 Tax Relief

1.2 Agricultural Preservation Planning

1.2.1 Policy Statements

1.2.2 Maps

1.2.3 Relationship to Other Plans

1.3 Data Analysis

1.3.1 Agricultural Data Sources

1.4 Intergovernmental Coordination and Public Participation

1.5 Plan Implementation

1.5.1 Exclusive Agricultural Zoning

Use Consistent with Agricultural Use

1.6 Soil and Water Conservation

2. Other Programs

2.1 Land and Water Resource Management Planning

2.2 Agricultural Impact Statements

2.3 Drainage Districts

2.4 Local Regulation of Livestock Operations

2.5 Agricultural Shoreland Management Ordinances

3. Resource Materials


Chapter 12 Housing

1. Housing Assessment

1.1 Housing Supply

1.2 Housing Demand

1.3 Housing Policies for Future Life Cycle Needs

2. Affordable Housing

2.1 Manufactured Housing

3. Federal Fair Housing Act Amendments

4. Resource Materials


Chapter 13 Economic Development

1. Framework for Economic Development Planning

1.1 Migration of Firms

1.2 Changes in Size of Existing Firms

1.3 Births/Deaths of Firms

1.4 Location of Public Expenditures

2. Organizing for Economic Development


Appendix 1

Appendix 2